At the Beginning of a Great Journey
The Demikhovo Engineering Works (abbreviation: DMZ) story started, as it is believed, in 1935 with the USSR People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry decree to create an engineering and iron cast works within the Orgkhimmontazh Trust, hence an opening of a small factory in Demikhovo village.
The factory was inaugurated in May 1935 in the only shop of the former silk weaving factory, which before had belonged to the Vetrov family. The facility ensured the production of equipment for the chemical industry and the staff of that time numbered about 100 people. In one building (nowadays, it is so called an "old office block") there were two shops: an engineering and a boiler ones. The product range mostly consisted of a simple container type equipment, coils and other spare parts used in the chemical industry.
After the factory being passed under the control of the peat industry, the facilities were used to organize a cast iron production. Thanks to the efforts of foreman M.F. Shaposhnikov and team leader G.S. Lazarev the cast iron output reached 300 tons. The castings, which the factory used to ship to the peat industry enterprises, were: shutters, crusher hammers, bushes, and axle boxes.
In 1940 the factory became a member of the All-Soviet Union Engineering Trust, whose task was a manufacturing of spare parts and auxiliary equipment for the needs of the People's Commissariat of Power Stations, particularly, for its division Energotorfmash, which controlled the peat mining industry. At that time 338 people toiled at the factory manufacturing, in general, tender tanks for narrow-gauge steam locomotives, double-drum winches, shovels, crushers, hydraulic basis weight gauges, spare parts for power stations and peat mining machinery.
Demikhovo Engineering Works during the Second World War
When the Second World War broke out in Russia, the factory team managed to set a manufacturing of several types of military goods in parallel with the main production. Many workers went off to the War, others claimed a wish to join the militia. Women, old people, and teenagers substituted the men, who went to defend the Motherland. The people worked very hard and sometimes they could not leave their work posts for several days.
The front line was too close to Moscow, for this reason the national government took a decision to move the key industrial enterprises as far as possible to the East. Therefore, between October and November 1941 the major equipment was evacuated to the Urals. However, at the end of December the Council of People's Commissars of USSR issued a decree to restore Demikhovo Engineering Works and already in March 1942 the plant manufactured its first containers after being re-established. The DMZ team led by V.G. Zudin, who was appointed as the General Manager in August of the same year, coped with all difficulties they faced after evacuation and restarted production for the peat industry needs in less than no time.
The plant was entrusted with new tasks and started completing the USSR Army orders: projectile head parts for the Multiple Launch Rocket Systems BM-13, which later got a delicate nickname 'Katyusha'; outboard tanks and stabilizers for warplanes, fuel trailers, artillery projectile bodies, and cartridge cases.
In January 1943 the DMZ team was awarded with the transferable Red Banner established by All-Soviet Union Trade Union Central Council and the People's Commissariat of Power Stations (in Soviet times the Red Banner was an award to distinct a company's or a person's outstanding achievement in the economic development of the country). Moreover, besides having had the honour to set the Red Banner, the team got a monetary reward in the amount of 20,000 rubles.
The staff continued working very hard and in 1943 the production reached its pre-war level. Some of the plant workers were awarded with orders and medals for their valiant efforts during the Second World War.
Mechanical Engineering in Our Scope
In the post-war years DMZ was focused on manufacturing narrow-gauge carriages for the peat industry needs. In 1947 the designers created a new peat carriage of hopper type, which got a designation UMV, and in March 1948 the serial production of these carriages was started, as well as the manufacturing of sod peat collecting machines under the designation TUM-3.
Since 1949 there was a significant output growth rate, including the cast iron production. The group of engineers and designers led by Y.V. Granovsky and N.I. Polyakov created passenger carriage PV-26, brush and plow type snow rail cleaners. During this time, DMZ defined its manufacturing sector for years: the narrow-gauge transport engineering and manufacturing. Thus, for a long time, DMZ remained the only manufacturer of narrow-gauge rolling stock in the country.
The growing production demanded new facilities and in 1951 it was started a plant renovation program. Within this program, it was built a new shop of total area of 500 sq.m and it was the first shop equipped with an electric overhead crane. Besides this state-of-the-art shop, the other three were opened: adjustment and assembly (1952), mechanical assembly (1954), and foundry (1958). By 1953 there was a more than fourfold output increase. At that time the General Manager of the factory was A.A. Lopukhin, who did a lot to expand the production areas, to equip the shops with new machinery, to improve working conditions, and to make the production standards higher.
In the 1950s about 20 models of the narrow-gauge rolling stock were designed and put into production: peat wagons, measuring open wagons of hopper type, flat wagons with the load capacity of 8 tons, transporter flat wagons, track relayers, tank wagons with the load capacity of 10 tons, passenger carriages, motodraisines of four different types, brush and plow type snow cleaners, diesel locomotives, electric locomotives and diesel electric locomotives.
In the 1960s DMZ continued to expand its production facilities, hence an output growth and growing number of personnel. Thus, in 1961 three new shops were opened: forge and press, carpenter and experimental ones; in 1965 - painting and assembly shop; in 1968 blank production shop respectively. The range of products became wider as well, i.e. several new types of wagons were put into production: self-unloading peat wagons, cinema and dining cars, prison population carriages, covered wagons, passenger railbuses, tank wagons with the load capacity of 20 tons, which in 1969 was awarded with the State Quality Seal, which meant the highest quality level approval and new frontiers achievement, because it was the first product of such high standard manufactured in the Orekhovo-Zuevo district.
Meanwhile, in 1973 DMZ started manufacturing rolling stock for the standard Russian (so called wide) gauge of 1520mm: four-axle self-unloading wagons (i.e. dump-carts), and in the same year the title of Enterprise of High Production Standards and Labour Management was granted to the factory.
In the 1970s DMZ started production of the following types of carriages: dump-carts of 1520 mm gauge with the load capacity of 60 tons; narrow-gauge dump-carts; passenger carriages of 900 mm gauge; post and luggage wagons of 900 mm gauge; covered wagons of 900 mm gauge; open wagons of 900 mm; flat wagons of 900 mm gauge; timber-haulage flat wagons; flatbed wagons.
In the late 1970s another period of modernization and renovation began, as well as auxiliary works mechanization and automatization. The economic efficiency was improved significantly via a new state-of-the-art equipment and advanced technical practices implementation. The innovators' and rationalizers' achievements were awarded many times with the regional organizations' Certificates of Merit.
The designers were constantly working on new products and, as the result of their efforts, in the 1980s at the plant were created and put into production: peat open wagons of entire body, dump-carts of 1000 mm gauge, measuring open wagons of hopper type, timber-haulage flat wagons of new design, flat wagons with the load capacity of 23 tons, passenger carriages for railway workers, and upgraded dinning cars.
The year of 1985 was the 50th DMZ anniversary. The plant was awarded with the Order of the Red Banner of Labour for its considerable contribution to the national carriage and wagon manufacturing development and to the successful economic plans accomplishment. One more award was granted this year: the dump-cart 7VS 60 of 1520 mm gauge got the highest quality level.
In the late 1980s there was a recession in the peat industry, hence a significant reduction of the narrow-gauge rolling stock output. Thus, the main sector in that time became a wide gauge dump-carts manufacturing. Its percentage reached 63.4% of the total output. A part of the dump-carts had been exported to Cuba and Bulgaria, moreover, a consignment of 1000 mm gauge dump-carts was shipped to Vietnam.
In 1986 the USSR Council of Ministers obliged the Ministry of Heavy Engineering and the Central Agency of Construction of Moscow District to ensure the completion of works related to the new facilities construction on the territory of DMZ within the program, which aimed to develop the electric multiple units (EMUs) manufacturing. Within this program DMZ had to satisfy a growing demand in driving and trailer carriages, when Rigas Vagonbuves Rupnica (the carriages manufacturing plant in Riga, Latvia) in its turn had to supply motor carriages. Thus, in 1987 on the territory of DMZ the construction works were started.
The Cradle of Russian Electric Multiple Units
In 1992, after the USSR being collapsed, the national government decided to expand the production of suburban electric multiple units in the facilities of Demikhovo Engineering Works. The repurposing was done at full tilt: the territory was extended, the brand new shops were built, etc. Minister of Railway Transport of Russia G.M. Fadeev supervised the process, for this reason he visited the plant several times. The minister called this ambitious program as 'the matter of national importance".
On 28 December 1992 the customer accepted the first built trailer carriage for DC EMUs. The carriage had a standard body length of 21.5 m and it was produced under the designation ED, i.e. Demikhovo Electric Multiple Unit. In 1993 the plant started the serial production of EMU carriages.
In August 1993 the first motor/driving carriage was built at DMZ. Further, on 30 October 1993 the first Russian fully formed EMU was born under the designation ED2T-0001. In April 1994 at the plant it was built the first DC driving/motor carriage and in July 1994 it was assembled a train ED2T-0006, which is the first train with carriages manufactured completely in Russia. The first AC EMU was built in 1995, it got a designation ED9T.
On 30 June 1997 the team was awarded with the Russian Government Prize for Science and Technology: 'Design and Put into the Production of Suburban Electric Multiple Unit ED2T with the New Standard Carriage Length of 21.5 m.'
Within the federal program 'The New Generation Passenger Rolling Stock Design and Production' the specialists of DMZ began to work on creating trains, which would be operated on the Russian Railways in the third millennium. In 1997 DMZ gifted three brand new trains to Moscow as it was the 850th anniversary of the city. These ED4M units had motor/driving carriages of an advanced design and also other technical innovations. In spring 1998 Demikhovo started the ED4M serial production.
The next step was a creation of DC EMUs of enhanced comfort ED4MK (for the Moscow Railway) and AC EMUs ED9MC (for the East Siberian Railway). The main feature of these trains was an upgraded coach layout and enhanced comfort. The ED4MC and ED9MC had carriages of the 1st, 2nd and 3d class.
A New Round of the Development
In 2000 the President of Russia ad interim Vladimir Putin visited Demikhovo Engineering Works in a few days prior to the presidential elections.
In 2001 within the sustainable industrial production program accomplishment, DMZ created an power-saving EMU under a designation ED4E. The main idea of the project 'Power-Saving Electrical Equipment' was an increasing of the voltage on the traction motors, which let reduce the overall traction power consumption by 25-30%.
In 2005 Demikhovo Engineering Works became a part of the holding company Transmashholding, ZAO, the leader in the field of the rolling stock design and manufacturing for the needs of surface and underground railways. DMZ started its re-equipment. Thanks to a new state-of-the-art equipment, the labour efficiency increased in several times. In February 2005, for the first time, DMZ got the GOST R ISO 9001-2001 certificate of Quality Management System Compliance, which confirms the compliance with the norms and regulations requirements.
In 2006 DMZ manufactured a DC EMU of the enhanced comfort under the designation ED4MCM and in 2007 the plant presented its modification ED4MCM-AERO as a 'railway station - airport' shuttle. The key features of these trains were: the frontal part of a new streamlined design, smooth non-corrugated carriage body, and exterior sliding plug doors.
In 2006 an power-saving AC EMU, under the designation ED9E, was designed at DMZ. In 2010 this model passed the certification and was put into production . The reduced power consumption let minimize the number of motor carriages and operating costs.
Comply with the World's Standards
In 2011 at the 'Expo-1520' DMZ presented a section of the electric multiple unit ED4M #0500 with an upgraded exterior design, power-saving electrical equipment and a number of technical improvements. This EMU got the positive specialists' assessment.
In the same year the plant started production of wheelsets for the underground railway carriages of the 760 series, the manufacturer is Metrovagonmash, OAO.
In 2012 it was started production of the EMU ED9E with the upgraded design. Moreover, at DMZ it was organized a serial production of the escalator units and components for the Moscow Metro stations. At the same time, the plant started production of motor and non-motor wheelsets for the railbuses RA-2.
In 2013 the DMZ specialists designed a special train EDS1R for workers' transportation. It was a pilot project for the plant: the new train consists of two carriages, one of which is designed for an equipment storage and another one is for a comfortable maintenance crew transportation to a certain place. Moreover, DMZ started production of motor bogies for the rolling stock of 1520 mm gauge and organized a railbuses overhaul.
The first electric multiple unit ED9E was built at the beginning of 2014. The train had an upgraded design of the driving carriage head part, the fibreglass cab module is a similar to the one designed for the EMU ED4M #0500. This project was elaborated specially for the Kazakhstan Railways.
Governor of the Moscow Region A.Y. Vorobiev visited DMZ on 26 of February to take part in a contract signing ceremony. According to the contract DMZ had to supply 26 new EMUs to the Central Suburban Passenger Company, OAO. Within one year, DMZ shipped to the customer 4 EMUs of ED4M series with carriages of the 1st and 2nd class, 18 EMUs with carriages of the 3d class, and 4 EMUs of ED4M #0500 series with carriages of the of 2nd class.
In 2014 the certification of EDS1R was completed and first two EMUs of this series were delivered to the customer. In December DQS Group presented to DMZ a QMS certificate of compliance with the IRIS requirements.
In 2015 the DMZ team designed and put into production a DC EMU under the designation EP2D, which has to replace the series ED4M. The new EMU is manufactured in full compliance with the technical regulations of the EACU, i.e., unified regulations applicable in the territories of Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, and Tajikistan.
The DMZ designers created an essentially new platform type for EMUs, which allows to create any train modifications to be operated on the routes either with low or high passenger traffic. This is the first EMU, whose design let include from 2-3 up to 12 carriages, in the CIS countries. After this new rolling stock project being certified in May 2016, the serial production of EP2D has started.